NOTE 4: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|NOTE 4: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 4: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of estimates
The preparation of the unaudited financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents.
Inventory consists of finished goods available for sale and raw materials owned by the Company and are stated at the lower of cost or market. As of September 30, 2018, the finished goods inventory totaled $3,392 and raw materials in production totaled $-0-.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using straight-line method over the estimated useful life. New assets and expenditures that extend the useful life of property or equipment are capitalized and depreciated. Expenditures for ordinary repairs and maintenance are charged to operations as incurred. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 the Company recorded $2,517 of depreciation expense for each of these periods.
As required by generally accepted accounting principles, trademarks and patents are not amortized since they have an indefinite life. Instead, they are tested annually for impairment. Intangible assets as of September 30, 2018 amounted to $53,692 net of accumulated impairment losses of $661,740.
On January 1, 2018 the Company adopted guidance contained in Topic 606 (FASB ASC 606). The core principle of Topic 606 (FASB ASC 606) is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods of services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The revenue recognition guidance contained in Topic 606, to follow the five-step revenue recognition model along with other guidance impacted by this standard: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transportation price; (4) allocate the transportation price; (5) recognize revenue when or as the entity satisfies a performance obligation. Previous practices were broadly consistent with this approach, and the company determined the amount of revenue based on the amounts customer paid or promised to pay.
In April 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an Accounting Standards Update (ASU) ASU 2016 10 Revenue from Contract with Customers: identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing. The amendments in this Update clarify the two following aspects (a) contracts with customers to transfer goods and services in exchange for consideration and (b) determining whether an entitys promise to grant a license provides a customer with either a right to use the entitys intellectual property (which is satisfied at a point in time) or a right to access the entitys intellectual property (which is satisfied over time). The amendments in this Update are intended to reduce the degree of judgment necessary to comply with Topic 606. The Company adopted this guidance.
Revenues from continuing operations recognized for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 amounted to $28,646 and $32,116, respectively.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Axim Biotechnologies, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries Axim Holdings, Inc. Can Chew License Company, and Axim Biotechnologies (the Netherland company) as of September 30, 2018. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company assessed the classification of its derivative financial instruments as of September 30, 2018, which consist of convertible instruments and rights to shares of the Companys common stock and determined that such derivatives meet the criteria for liability classification under ASC 815.
ASC 815 generally provides three criteria that, if met, require companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments. These three criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument subject to the requirement of ASC 815. ASC 815 also provides an exception to this rule when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional, as described.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Effective January 1, 2008, the Company adopted FASB ASC 820-Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, or ASC 820, for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. ASC 820 establishes a common definition for fair value to be applied to existing generally accepted accounting principles that require the use of fair value measurements established a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about such fair value measurements. The adoption of ASC 820 did not have an impact the Companys financial position or operating results but did expand certain disclosures.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Additionally, ASC 820 requires the use of valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. These inputs are prioritized below:
Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market date
Level 3: Unobservable inputs for which there is little or no market data, which require the use of the reporting entitys own assumptions.
The Company did not have any Level 2 or Level 3 assets or liabilities as of September 30, 2018, with the exception of its convertible notes payable and derivative liability. The carrying amounts of these liabilities at September 30, 2018 approximate their respective fair value based on the Companys incremental borrowing rate.
Cash is considered to be highly liquid and easily tradable as of September 30, 2018 and therefore classified as Level 1 within our fair value hierarchy.
In addition, FASB ASC 825-10-25 Fair Value Option, or ASC 825-10-25, was effective for January 1, 2008. ASC 825-10-25 expands opportunities to use fair value measurements in financial reporting and permits entities to choose to measure many financial instruments and certain other items at fair value. The Company did not elect the fair value options for any of its qualifying financial instruments.
The Company evaluates and accounts for conversion options embedded in its convertible instruments in accordance with professional standards for Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities.
Professional standards generally provide three criteria that, if met, require companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments. These three criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instruments are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument. Professional standards also provide an exception to this rule when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional as defined under professional standards as The Meaning of Conventional Convertible Debt Instrument.
The Company accounts for convertible instruments (when it has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments) in accordance with professional standards when Accounting for Convertible Securities with Beneficial Conversion Features, as those professional standards pertain to Certain Convertible Instruments. Accordingly, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their earliest date of redemption. The Company also records when necessary deemed dividends for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in preferred shares based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note.
ASC 815-40 provides that, among other things, generally, if an event is not within the entitys control could or require net cash settlement, then the contract shall be classified as an asset or a liability.
The Company follows Section 740-10, Income tax (ASC 740-10) Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent management concludes it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the Statements of Operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets to the extent that the Company believes that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including reversals of any existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and the results of recent operations. If the Company determines that it would be able to realize a deferred tax asset in the future in excess of any recorded amount, the Company would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
The Company adopted section 740-10-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("Section 740-10-25"). Section 740-10-25 addresses the determination of whether tax benefits claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return should be recorded in the financial statements. Under Section 740-10-25, the Company may recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent (50%) likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Section 740-10-25 also provides guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties on income taxes, accounting in interim periods and requires increased disclosures. The Company had no liabilities for unrecognized income tax benefits according to the provisions of Section 740-10-25.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments and related items, which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and temporary cash investments with credit quality institutions. At times, such amounts may be in excess of the FDIC insurance limit. The Company does not have accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts on September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Net Loss per Common Share
Net loss per common share is computed pursuant to section 260-10-45 Earnings Per Share (ASC 260-10) of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding and the member potentially outstanding during each period. In periods when a net loss is experienced, only basic net loss per share is calculated because to do otherwise would be anti-dilutive.
There were 14,866,998 common share equivalents on September 30, 2018 and 15,587,904 common shares at December 31, 2017. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 these potential shares were excluded from the shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share as their inclusion would reduce net loss per share.
Stock Based Compensation
All stock-based payments to employees and to nonemployee directors for their services as directors, including any grants of restricted stock and stock options, are measured at fair value on the grant date and recognized in the statements of operations as compensation or other expense over the relevant service period. Stock-based payments to nonemployees are recognized as an expense over the period of performance. Such payments are measured at fair value at the earlier of the date a performance commitment is reached, or the date performance is completed. In addition, for awards that vest immediately and are non-forfeitable the measurement date is the date the award is issued.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales includes the purchase cost of products sold and all costs associated with getting the products to the customers including buying and transportation costs.
Research and Development
The Company accounts for research and development costs in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 730-10, Research and Development (ASC 730-10). Under ASC 730-10, all research and development costs must be charged to expense as incurred. Accordingly, internal research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Third-party research and development costs are expensed when the contracted work has been performed or as milestone results have been achieved. Company-sponsored research and development costs related to both present and future products are expensed in the period incurred. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $350,588 and $632,674 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 respectively. The Company incurred research and development expenses of $1,701,986 and $835,988 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 respectively.
Shipping and handling costs billed to customers are recorded in sales. Shipping costs incurred by the company are recorded in general and administrative expenses.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, Codification Improvements. This ASU makes changes to a variety of topics to clarify, correct errors in, or make minor improvements to the Accounting Standards Codification. The majority of the amendments in ASU 2018-09 will be effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company expects to adopt ASU 2018-09 in the first quarter of 2019. The Company is evaluating the impact of the standard and does not expect the guidance to have a material effect on its financial statements.
In September 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605), Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), Leases (Topic 840), and Leases (Topic 842). The Company lease office on month-to-month basis. Topic 842 can be early adopted and will not have material impact on the preparation of financial statements. The effective date for ASU 2017-13 is for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018.
In July 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Part 1 Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features and Part 2 Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with Scope Exception (ASU No. 2017-11). Part 1 of ASU No. 2017-11 addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Down round features are provisions in certain equity-linked instruments (or embedded features) that result in the strike price being reduced on the basis of the pricing of future equity offerings. Current accounting guidance creates cost and complexity for entities that issue financial instruments (such as warrants and convertible instruments) with down round features that require fair value measurement of the entire instrument or conversion option. Part II of ASU No. 2017-11 addresses the difficulty of navigating Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, because of the existence of extensive pending content in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification®. This pending content is the result of the indefinite deferral of accounting requirements about mandatorily redeemable financial instruments of certain nonpublic entities and certain mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interests. For public business entities, the amendments in Part I of this update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The amendments in Part II of this update do not require any transition guidance because those amendments do not have an accounting effect. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. This new standard clarifies the definition of a business and provides a screen to determine when an integrated set of assets and activities is not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. This new standard is effective for the Company as of January 1, 2018.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) that will eliminate the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, impairment charge will be based on the excess of a reporting unit's carrying amount over its fair value. The guidance is effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not anticipate the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements, absent any goodwill impairment.
In November 2016, the Financial Accounting Standard Board(FASB) issued Accounting Standard Update (ASU) 2016-18 Restricted Cash - Statement of Cash Flow (Topic 230). ASU 2016-18 addresses classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows under Topic 230, Statement of Cash Flows. Entities classify transfers between cash and restricted cash as operating, investing, or financing activities, or as a combination of those activities, in the statement of cash flows. The Company does not have restricted cash or restricted cash equivalent and therefore our presentation of Statement of Cash Flow is not affected but this update.
In October 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-16-Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. ASU 2016-16 will require the tax effects of intercompany transactions, other than sales of inventory, to be recognized currently, eliminating an exception under current GAAP in which the tax effects of intra-entity asset transfer are deferred until the transferred asset is sold to a third party or otherwise recovered through use. The guidance will be effective for the first interim period of our 2019 fiscal year, with early adoption permitted.
In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) ASU N. 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts a Cash Payments (ASU 2016-15). ASU 2016-15 provides guidance regarding the classification of certain items within the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and was adopted by the Company.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02, which amends the guidance in U.S. GAAP on accounting for operating leases, a lessee will be required to recognize assets and liabilities for operating leases with lease terms of more than 12 months on the balance sheet. The new standard is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and upon adoption, an entity should apply the amendments by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet at the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. Early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance.
The amendments also clarify that the guidance in Topic 275, Risks and Uncertainties, is applicable to entities that have not commenced planned principal operations.
Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB and the SEC did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statements
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef